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Language Education Outcomes to Indicators to Activities to Resources

This curriculum planning chart for MTB-MLE language education maps learning outcomes to indicators of student progress.  It then offers examples of learning activities which will help achieve those learning outcomes.  Finally, it lists classroom materials (resources) that are needed to teach the learning activities.

Topics covered are:

  • Build Oral L1
  • Introduce L1 Literacy (then build fluency)
  • Introduce Oral L2 (then build fluency)
  • Introduce L2 Literacy (then build fluency)
  • Introduce Written L2 (same writing system, different script from L1)
  • Introduce Written L2 (different writing system, different script from L1)
  • Fluency in Oral and Written L1 and L2: Activities to Build Critical Thinking Skills
  • Introduce Oral L3
  • Introduction To and Gaining Fluency In Written L3

Below is a sample from the chart:

Introduce Oral L2 (then build fluency)

Learning Outcomes:  The students will…

Indicators: The students will demonstrate that they have achieved this learning outcome when they

Focus on


    & /or


Learning activities to achieve this outcome

Materials / Resources for the activities

Respond to simple spoken L2 in different classroom activities

  • Follow simple instructions
  • Listen and then act out a simple L2 story
  • Join in short, simple rhymes and songs in the L2


  • Total Physical Response (TPR) activities (especially listening phase)
  • Listen to T tell or read short and simple L2 texts with actions, then act out the story as teacher tells or reads a second time (TPR-S)
  • T models using L2 in variety of classroom interactions, using facial expression, gestures to help communicate meaning; S respond;
  • Classroom space
  • Familiar objects
  • Pictures OR chalkboard drawings of culturally familiar content
  • Simple L2 stories
  • L2 labels for games.


Malone, Susan. (2007). Learning Outcomes, Indicators, Activities & Resources for Language Education In MTB-MLE Programs, Years 1-3. SIL.
Language Ed Outcomes to Indicators to Activities to Resources.pdf183.05 KB

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